What is the Relationship Between Tyre Construction and Performance?

What is the Relationship Between Tyre Construction and Performance?

Why is the rolling resistance of radial truck tyre low? Why is radial truck tyre more wear-resistant than bias tyre? 70% of the load intensity of the radial truck tyre is concentrated on the belt layer. Is that true? What is the relationship between tyre construction and performance?


Ⅰ. The impact of tyre construction on tyre performance is complex and not direct


Tyre performance can be summed up in two points:


1. The carcass must be firm and durable, that is, there will be no unexplained problems such as explosion, air leakage during the running of the car;


2. The tread must be flat when touching the ground, that is, stable driving, reliable braking performance, and good wear resistance of the tread. To put it simpler, it is nothing more than the carcass problem and the tread problem, and these two problems can still be combined into one because the structure of the carcass controls the performance of the tread when the car is running.


Ⅱ. Tyre construction determines the tread shape so as to determine all the performances of the tire directly related to the tread shape.


The shape of the tire tread and its changes are important factors that affect the performance of the tire when the tire is running. Radial truck tyres benefit from the tightening effect of the belt layer, and under normal air inflation pressure, the tyre crown and tyre shoulder are basically kept in line. However, due to the high air inflation pressure of the truck tyre, the crown is slightly raised and the radian is not as big as that of the bias tyre.


The properties affected by the tyre construction are:


1. Stability of driving

Tyre construction has a great impact on the stability of driving. As the tread changes from an arc to a straight line, the effective width of the tread that touches the ground will increase until the shoulder and the crown touch the ground at the same time, which will significantly improve the lateral support of the car so as to make the car more stable.


2. Shortened braking distance

The flat tread helps maintain adhesion to the ground, thereby shortening the braking distance.


3. Rolling resistance

When the car is still, there is a surface between the tread and the ground that is commonly known as an imprint. Because of the curved tread of the bias tyre, its imprint is elliptical with a larger front-to-back spacing and narrow side spacing, while the radial truck tyre's imprint is closer to a rectangle with a short front-to-back spacing and large side spacing. Under the same pressure, the imprint area of the two is almost the same. This is the fundamental reason that radial truck tyres have lower rolling resistance.


4. Slip resistance

Whether the car is running along a straight line or is turning, a flat tread can always make the tire pattern more effectively contact the ground, enhance the tyre's grip, and reduce the possibility of sideslip.


5. Wear resistance


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Ⅲ. The tyre construction also directly determines the performance of the carcass itself, mainly manifested in:


1. The circumferential consistency of the centerline of tire crown.

The belt layer of the radial truck tire can ensure that the centerline of the tread is consistent with the centerline of the crown, that is, the balance of centrifugal force during high-speed rotation is significantly better than that of bias tyres.


2. Sidewall rigidity and maintainability

From the side, the arrangement of radial truck tyre steel wires is similar to fan ribs, and each steel wire is on the radius line. Since the radial truck tyre is generally a single-layer carcass structure, the steel wire neither overlaps nor cross other steel wires. The gap between the steel wires is sealed by rubber (commonly known as "sidewall rubber"). The sidewall of the radial truck tyre is fan-shaped, and once pierced by an external force, it is prone to crack and cannot be repaired.


3. Heat generation of the carcass

There are two main parts of carcass heat generation, one part comes from the carcass frame material and sidewall rubber, and the other part comes from the air in the tyre. The main reasons for the heat generation of the carcass are: first, the carcass of the tyre deforms under load. When a car turns or the road surface has ups and downs, the tyre shape is prone to deformation due to the force of the road surface and the car's own weight. The second is that the dynamic load of the tyre is constantly changing when the car is running, so the carcass will expand and contract. The third is the frequent squeezing and flow of air in the tyre due to the change of the carcass shape and the expansion and contraction of the frame material. In fact, there are two key elements in the heat generation of tyre, namely the internal energy and movement of the material. When the internal energy of the material is stimulated, it generates heat. Thermal energy is one of the basic properties of matter, and movement is the excitation condition. The design of tyre is to reduce unnecessary movement as much as possible, and only in this way, the heat generated by the same material will naturally be reduced.


4. Load-carrying performance

The load-carrying performance of the tire is not only determined by the intensity and quantity of the frame material, but also by the intensity of the ring traveler. The angle between the carcass wire of a radial truck tire and the ring traveler is a right angle. It is generally believed that the arrangement of the radial truck tyre can better exert the strong performance of the frame material, which is actually a misunderstanding. The final force-bearing component of the tire is the ring traveler, and both ends of the carcass wire are all fixed on the ring traveler. The force form of the tyre is not just a simple pulling force, but mainly the external expansion force of the internal pressure of the gas. This force is perpendicular to the inner wall of the tyre. The structural design of the tyre is determined by the intensity of the ring traveler and the frame material, the size of the tyre cavity, and the air inflation pressure.

The above is the analysis of tyre construction and its performance, we hope it can be helpful to everyone.

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