Tires are the only part of the vehicle that come into contact with the ground, so the performance of good value tires has a bearing on the handling and stability of the vehicle. For example, in the case of tractor semi-trailers, each axle has different characteristics corresponding to its load and driving characteristics, so the tires also differ. One important distinction is the tread pattern. The following is an brief introduction of tread pattern by Aulice Tyre.
In the 1980s, road transport in China was dominated by medium-sized trucks with low speed. The tread pattern of the matching tire is relatively single, generally divided into transverse tread pattern, longitudinal tread pattern and combined tread pattern. The main function of the transverse tread pattern is to enhance friction, while the longitudinal tread pattern enhances the tire's guidance and resistance to side slippage. Combined tread patterns are compatible with the functions of both tread patterns and are also universal and are still common in many low-end tire products today.
As for today's road transport vehicles, tires have higher performance requirements to meet the high speed, heavy load, rain, snow, gravel and other harsh conditions under a variety of complex road conditions. Faced with hundreds of tires of the same specification, how can the tread pattern be correctly selected to give the vehicle the best performance? First of all, it is necessary to understand the different functions of tire tread patterns of large truck tyres, the following is an example of the most typical tractor semi-trailer:
① Steering tires
For the tread pattern of special steering wheels, generally four longitudinal tread patterns are predominant, with straight lines to give the tire less rolling resistance, better guidance and resistance to side slippage, and special treatment of the shoulder for the friction on the outside of the tyre when steering.
② Drive tires
Specialised drive wheels have a typical mixed tread pattern, usually with four or five longitudinal stripes, and dense transverse stripes forming a block-type structure. The block pattern increases the friction of the tire, with the tread contacting the road at an angle, resulting in good anti-slip ability, high load-bearing capacity and longer life.
It should be noted that drive wheels generally have a one-way pattern and symmetrical pattern. Note the distinction between the former tire has a rolling direction and must not be mounted in reverse.
③ Trailer tires
The tread pattern of special trailer wheels is generally longitudinal four stripes, and both sides of the tread (shoulder) area increas and resistance to lateral scraping ability is enhanced. Usually these tires have a special structure of the steel wire belt bundle which resists punctures, squeezing and is also better in impact ability.
Note: these tires are generally not universal and are only used on trailers.
④ Universal tires
Note the number of longitudinal tread patterns tread in the pattern of universal tires; four longitudinal tread patterns can be used on steering wheels, but the effect is extremely poor when used on trailers.
Tires with three longitudinal tread patterns are fine for trailers, but mounted on steering wheels will reduce the vehicle's ability to resist side slippage. Tires with four longitudinal patterns are generally used for buses and have a general effect on truck load-bearing axles; tires with three longitudinal patterns are common for trucks and should be avoided on steering axles.
There are more types of tire tread pattern, but the basic functions are the same. By distinguishing the function of horizontal and vertical tread pattern, reasonable match, the stability of the vehicle and rolling resistance will be improved. Generic tires have average performance, so we should reduce the speed of the vehicle appropriately.